Bossa nova, or bossanova, or bossa nova4, is a musical genre that emerged in the late 1950s in Brazil. Born from a combination of samba and cool jazz, bossa nova became significantly popular among young musicians and students in the 1960s.
The Bossa Nova style was invented by a group composed of the composer Antônio Carlos Jobim, the singer João Gilberto, Normando Santos, the poet Vinícius de Moraes and others who inspired some of the youth of the Ipanema and Copacabana districts in Rio de Janeiro in the late 1950s.
From 1958 onwards, it became popular in Brazil with the album Chega de Saudade, recorded in Rio in 1958, but sold from São Paulo in 1959. In this album, João Gilberto performed three songs by Antônio Carlos Jobim (with lyrics by Vinícius de Moraes (Chega de Saudade...) and Newton Mendonça), three others by Carlos Lyra, two personal compositions, and covered old sambas in his own way as well as a song by Dorival Caymmi (Rosa Morena).
In 1963, thanks to the collaboration of João Gilberto and saxophonist Stan Getz on the album Getz/Gilberto, bossa nova became a worldwide success with A Garota de Ipanema (The Girl from Ipanema, in English), performed by Astrud Gilberto. Among Stan Getz's musicians was the Brazilian guitarist Laurindo Almeida, who preceded Getz by ten years as the real bridge between Brazilian music and jazz. (See Almeida's discography between 1954 and 1964 / Wikipedia) The greatest classics of bossa nova are grouped here: A Garota de Ipanema, Corcovado, Desafinado, Só danço samba, O grande amor and Vivo sonhando. In 1974, it was Antônio Carlos Jobim and Elis Regina's Elis & Tom, the last great masterpiece of the golden age in the Bossa Nova style, that caused a sensation.
During a tour in Italy in 1961 João Gilberto discovered Bruno Martino's song, Estate. He adapted it in his own way in 1977 and it became an international standard performed by the greatest jazz musicians, from Chet Baker to Michel Petrucciani and Toots Thielemans.
Salsa (a Spanish word meaning "sauce" and, in a figurative sense: charm, spiciness) refers to both a musical genre and a dance with Cuban roots. This lively dance music is popularized all over the world.
A musician (or singer) or salsa dancer is called a salsero (female salsera).
Salsa is a music written in 4 beats (4 beats per bar). For a couple of bars, when the musician counts 1, 2, 3, 4 for the first bar (strong bar) and always 1, 2, 3, 4 for the second bar (weak bar), generally speaking, the dancer and/or dance teacher counts 1, 2, 3, 4 the first bar, then 5, 6, 7, 8 the second bar. This way of counting to 8 is common to many other dances (modern'jazz, hip-hop, classical,...). Three types of salsa and different styles can be identified: Cuban salsa, Puerto Rican salsa and Colombian salsa. It comes from many rhythms such as Cuban sound, mambo and guaracha, Puerto Rico plena and a bomba, and different styles such as charanga, conjunto, sexteto and others. But it is mainly based on a fusion of his montuno and mambo. The first songs are Dónde estabas a noche (1925, Ignacio Piñeiro), Don lengua and Échale salsita (1933, Ignacio Piñeiro). For confusion or commercial purposes, the term salsa is sometimes used to include other incompatible genres such as merengue, cha-cha-cha, even Latin house, cumbia, bachata. In 1952 José Curbelo wrote the songs La familia, Sun Sun Babae and Mambo cha cha cha; in 1955 the Cuban singer Cheo Marquetti formed the group Conjunto salseros after a work experience in Mexico, and composed the songs Sonero and Que no muera el son. During this period, Benny Moré also composed beautiful songs (Castellano, que bueno baila usted, Vertiente Camaguey, Son guajiro and Santa Isabel de las layas).
The term salsa encompasses this variety of rhythmic and musical styles. To study the roots of salsa, we must turn to Cuba because of its enormous contributions to this type of music. Countries such as the United States, Puerto Rico, Venezuela, Mexico, Colombia and the Dominican Republic have also contributed to the development of salsa, but it was in Cuba that its foundations were developed.