Punk rock is a musical genre derived from rock, which appeared in the mid-1970s and was associated with the punk movement of the same period. Preceded by a variety of protopunk music from the 1960s and early 1970s, punk rock developed mainly between 1974 and 1976 in the United States, the United Kingdom and Australia. Groups such as the Ramones, the Sex Pistols, and The Saints are known as the pioneers of a new musical movement. Punk rock groups, opposing the heaviness they consider excessive and the institutionalization of popular rock of the 1970s, create fast and harsh music, usually served by short songs, simplified instrumentation and lyrics often loaded with political or nihilistic messages. The punk movement, associated with gender, expresses a young rebellion and is characterized by distinctive dress styles, a variety of anti-authoritarian ideologies and a do it yourself attitude.
Punk rock has quickly become a major cultural phenomenon in the United Kingdom. The majority of punk's roots lie in local scenes that have tended to reject any connection to dominant musical trends. During the 1980s, even faster and more aggressive styles, such as hardcore punk and Oi!, evolved and became an important part of the punk landscape. Musicians identifying themselves or inspired by punk rock have allowed it to expand and diversify. These practices have given rise to the alternative rock movement. From the mid-1990s, new punk rock groups such as Green Day, Blink-182, The Offspring offered the genre a new popularity several decades after its emergence, but were denigrated by a large part of the punk movement who accused them of having institutionalized and made "commercial" the style, without sharing the basic values.
Grunge is a musical genre derived from rock and an underground culture, which emerged in the early 1990s mainly around Seattle, Washington. It is considered the most popular form of alternative rock worldwide in the 1990s, thanks in particular to the groups Nirvana, Pearl Jam, Soundgarden and Alice in Chains, which have sold millions of albums worldwide.
Grunge is inspired by heavy metal, independent rock and hardcore punk. It is characterized by highly saturated guitars, variable time signatures and apathetic lyrics or lyrics that deal with anxiety. The grunge aesthetic is refined, compared to other forms of rock music, and many grunge musicians have been noticed for their dirty appearance and the rejection of theatricality. The grunge movement emerged around the independent label Sub Pop in the late 1980s. Grunge became a commercial success in the first half of the 1990s, mainly thanks to the two albums released in 1991: Nevermind by Nirvana and Ten by Pearl Jam. The success of these bands amplified the popularity of alternative rock and made grunge the most popular form of hard rock at the time. Although most grunge bands disappeared in the late 1990s, their influence still continues to affect contemporary rock music.
Musician Mark Arm, the singer from Green River and later Mudhoney, was the first to use the word "grunge" to describe the "Seattle sound". He first used the word in 1981 in a letter to the fanzine Desperate Times that contained a review of his music group Mr. Epp and the Calculations. Arm says that the word "grunge" was used in Australia in the mid-1980s to describe the groups King Snake Roost, The Scientists, Salamander Jim, and Beasts of Bourbon3. According to Catherine Strong, the "dirty" sound of "grunge" music, unprofessionalism and low budgets for sound recordings in the late 1980s could have been the cause of the word4. Several factors have contributed to the decline of grunge. In the mid-1990s, and towards the end of that decade, several grunge groups split up or became less visible.